Middle ear anatomy is quite complex. Rendering a concrete picture of middle ear using only words had been always a challenging task. The extent of the imagination required by the students to understand this complex three-dimensional anatomy had always been very distressing to us as teachers. This led to our attempts to supplement our lectures with endoscopic ear images (of patients from our clinical practice) to enhance the knowledge of the students. This constant effort to solve the doubts of the students in the best possible way was the driving force behind this atlas.
The photographs in this atlas were obtained by using 4mm zero degree sinuscope that can be easily passed beyond the isthmus of the external auditory canal so as to allow the visualisation of the entire tympanic membrane. The clarity and the optics of the endoscope give greater information of the ear conditions. The zero degree sinuscope can be connected to a CCD camera and recording facility to capture images.
Before discussing the pathological conditions of the external and the middle ear, we have detailed the description of the normal tympanic membrane along with its variations. The appearance of the tympanic membrane is altered in various acute and chronic conditions affecting the middle ear. The alteration in its colour, surface, intactness and position has been well illustrated in this atlas.
The photographs included in the atlas are of both the left and the right tympanic membranes that will enable the reader to have a better understanding of the normal anatomy. This will also reduce the confusion related in knowing the side of the affected tympanic membrane. Ear disorders are one of the commonest diseases encountered in ear, nose and throat practice. The correct diagnosis of ear diseases requires a thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy and its alteration in pathological conditions.
This atlas gives a clear and lucid description of the various conditions represented in the photographs. We believe that this atlas will definitely be of immense help not only to the undergraduate and the postgraduate students, the ENT fraternity but also to general practitioners who also get a regular share of ENT patients.
This atlas will definitely supplement the standard ENT textbooks for a further in depth pictorial depiction of the ear disorders and thus facilitate proper diagnosis for dispensing appropriate treatment for otological disorders.
It is quite possible that there could be errors of omission and commission in the atlas. We would be very grateful to the readers for their suggestions to improve the atlas.
The aim of this atlas is to attract and inspire the students for a deeper dive into the subject of ENT.
Dr. Mubarak M. Khan
Dr. Sapna R. Parab